Definition: A variety of techniques used to prompt seeds to break out of their dormancy, allowing them to germinate more quickly and uniformly.
Seed Pretreatment in the Forest Garden:
Some seeds take a very long time to germinate naturally, but seed pretreatment techniques can help speed up this process. The main reason Forest Gardeners apply pretreatment techniques is to induce faster and more uniform germination. This helps to cut down on time needed in nurseries and ensures seedlings of a given species grow at similar rates and require similar care. It also ensures all the seedlings are ready for planting at the time they need to be outplanted.
Not all seeds require pretreatment to germinate quickly. Seeds requiring periods of cold or heat before germination or seeds with a hard seed coat are more likely to benefit from pretreatment. Some common pretreatment approaches include:
Soaking in Water - The most frequent pretreatment method involves soaking seeds in water, either room temperature or recently boiled, depending on the seed type. Farmers must be cautious not to boil the seeds themselves.
Scarification - For seeds with hard seed coats, the soaking technique may not be as effective as the coat may not allow water to penetrate and promote germination. Instead, farmers can practice scarification, where the edge of the seed coat is scratched or nicked to allow moisture to penetrate the coat and induce germination.
Stratification - In areas with more extreme temperature variation some seeds might require stratification. Farmers can alternate the seeds between warm and cold environments before they are ready to germinate. This happens naturally between seasons but can be induced by the farmer by placing seed in alternating warm and cold places for a period of time.